These Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox protector, the Russian Empire , or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. As a direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic establishment, as well as in the church. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks". Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim r. Modern Greek Enlightenment and Greek War of Independence The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in
Modern Greek Enlightenment and Greek War of Independence The relationship between ethnic Greek identity and Greek Orthodox religion continued after the creation of the modern Greek nation-state in For those that remained under the Ottoman Empire 's millet system , religion was the defining characteristic of national groups milletler , so the exonym "Greeks" Rumlar from the name Rhomaioi was applied by the Ottomans to all members of the Orthodox Church , regardless of their language or ethnic origin. These Greeks either emigrated, particularly to their fellow Greek Orthodox protector, the Russian Empire , or simply converted to Islam, often only very superficially and whilst remaining crypto-Christian. Added to this, in the first half of the Ottoman period men of Greek origin made up a significant proportion of the Ottoman army, navy, and state bureaucracy, having been levied as adolescents along with especially Albanians and Serbs into Ottoman service through the devshirme. The most notable example of the later was the work of the two Byzantine Greek brothers, the monks Saints Cyril and Methodius from the port city of Thessalonica , capital of the theme of Thessalonica , who are credited today with formalizing the first Slavic alphabet. The terms used to define Greekness have varied throughout history but were never limited or completely identified with membership to a Greek state. In Greek-inhabited territory itself, Greeks came to play a leading role in the Ottoman Empire , due in part to the fact that the central hub of the empire, politically, culturally, and socially, was based on Western Thrace and Greek Macedonia , both in Northern Greece , and of course was centred on the mainly Greek-populated, former Byzantine capital, Constantinople. Several Ottoman sultans and princes were also of part Greek origin, with mothers who were either Greek concubines or princesses from Byzantine noble families, one famous example being sultan Selim the Grim r. As a direct consequence of this situation, Greek-speakers came to play a hugely important role in the Ottoman trading and diplomatic establishment, as well as in the church. According to the second article of the first Greek constitution of , a Greek was defined as any native Christian resident of the Kingdom of Greece , a clause removed by The most notable examples of large-scale conversion to Turkish Islam among those today defined as Greek Muslims —excluding those who had to convert as a matter of course on being recruited through the devshirme —were to be found in Crete Cretan Turks , Greek Macedonia for example among the Vallahades of western Macedonia , and among Pontic Greeks in the Pontic Alps and Armenian Highlands. Achaeans Homer and Names of the Greeks Map showing the major regions of mainland ancient Greece, and adjacent "barbarian" lands. Greeks and Greek-speakers have used different names to refer to themselves collectively. Adamantios Korais , leading figure of the Greek enlightenment The roots of Greek success in the Ottoman Empire can be traced to the Greek tradition of education and commerce exemplified in the Phanariotes. The first considers "Romanity" the mode of self-identification of the subjects of a multi-ethnic empire at least up to the 12th century, where the average subject identified as Roman; a perennialist approach, which views Romanity as the medieval expression of a continuously existing Greek nation; while a third view considers the eastern Roman identity as a pre-modern national identity. Many Ottomans of Greek or Albanian or Serb origin were therefore to be found within the Ottoman forces which governed the provinces, from Ottoman Egypt, to Ottomans occupied Yemen and Algeria , frequently as provincial governors. In his "Political Constitution", he addresses to the nation as "the people descendant of the Greeks".
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