Collection tubes were then placed immediately in a cooler with ice until transported to storage laboratories in either London or Sylhet. Weibull regression models were also used to create plots for the distribution density of age at onset of adrenarche for each migration group. Methods and Findings Healthy girls, aged 5—16 years, were recruited from schools in Sylhet, Bangladesh and London, England comprising four groups: This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. The mean age of arrival in the UK for first-generation, British-Bangladeshi girls was 4. Many first generation migrants have children after migrating, explaining why most British-Bangladeshi children are second generation. Initially, school administrators were contacted via drop-in visits and the distribution of project description materials. Most new immigrants from Bangladesh are between the ages of 15—30 years  since marriage is the primary mechanism through which visas are currently issued in the UK. Trend tests were based on a dummy variable called Residency Scale.
Adrenarche is characterised by development of the zona reticularis in the adrenal cortex and the maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal HPA axis, processes which can be tracked physiologically by the steep rise in levels of dehydroepiandrosterone DHEA and its more ubiquitous sulfate ester, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate DHEAS  — . The data are available upon request through a data transfer agreement through the Intramural Division of the National Cancer Institute. The environmental conditions leading to an earlier adrenarche, as well as the health implications of this early transition, merit further exploration. Copyright notice This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration, which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. To test the first prediction, we compared the UK resident groups individually and collectively to Sylheti girls and tested for a trend using the Residency Scale. In order to continue our work attempting to elucidate the influence of the childhood environment on human reproductive characteristics, and because of the high risk for PCOS and metabolic disorders among Bangladeshi women, we initiated a subsequent migrant study of Bangladeshi children — the Adolescence among Bangladeshi and British Youth Project ABBY . Statistical Analyses Multiple linear regression MLR models were used to test for differences in socioeconomic and anthropometric variables. The reproducibility of the assays was assessed by two pooled, blinded quality control samples in each batch. First-generation migrants had a median age at adrenarche 5. Methods Subjects and Recruitment A total of healthy girls were recruited using convenience sampling from four different groups: Data Collection Anthropometrics Height, weight, and waist circumference were measured using standardized techniques  by two researchers in the UK, and one of these LCH took all the measurements in Bangladesh. This model accounts for the double censoring present in the cross-sectional data collected here; i. Most new immigrants from Bangladesh are between the ages of 15—30 years  since marriage is the primary mechanism through which visas are currently issued in the UK. We compared them to Bangladeshi girls of similar ages who continued living in Sylhet, Bangladesh, and children of European origin who attended the same UK schools as the migrant Bangladeshis. To test this hypothesis we made the following predictions: In multivariate models, first generation girls still reached adrenarche earlier than Sylhetis after adjusting for height [HR CI: Median age at adrenarche was estimated using Weibull regression models for parametric survival analysis. Multiple linear regressions tested for group differences in anthropometric and socioeconomic variables and DHEAS levels. We recruited girls between the ages of 5 and 16 into the study because the project was also designed to examine the timing of adrenarche in relation to menarche, which can occur as late at 16 years old. The MLRs tested for differences using trend tests and pairwise comparisons. Many first generation migrants have children after migrating, explaining why most British-Bangladeshi children are second generation. Conclusions We suggest that rapid catch-up growth experienced by first generation girls during early childhood may explain their advanced adrenarche. Earlier work with British-Bangladeshi migrant women suggested that environmental conditions experienced before adrenarche influence adult reproductive function. Written, informed consent was provided by parents of the participants and written, informed assent was provided by the participants. The connection between adrenarche and the development of secondary sexual characteristics led to speculation that it is a functional precursor to puberty  — .
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