They are listed by each topic header. For example, a young woman with autism noted that carrying several well-worn books everywhere she goes, and constantly reading them to the detriment of all other social interactions, may be a repetitive behavior that goes undetected. Conversely, considering families with a child that scored highly for subclinical ASD traits, higher scores are observed in siblings if the initial child was female rather than male [ 15 ]. Therefore, under the FPE model, a higher rate of ASD recurrence is expected in the siblings of affected females than the siblings of affected males; this expectation is often called the Carter Effect. Efforts in the US and in Europe www.
This issue emphasizes the need to better study trajectories of development rather than individual cross sectional studies. Conversely, considering families with a child that scored highly for subclinical ASD traits, higher scores are observed in siblings if the initial child was female rather than male [ 15 ]. What is causing the sex difference in ASD prevalence? This includes use of complex imitation and circumscribed interests in things like dolls and feathers, rather than parts of toys [ 42 ]. These advancements will require further research and scientific study. Specifically, longitudinal investigations will allow researchers to examine whether ASD symptoms emerge more quickly or more gradually in males or females. Efforts in the US and in Europe www. This activity is often done in circumstances where the victim cannot easily respond, in a public place such as a crowded train or concert. For example, a young woman with autism noted that carrying several well-worn books everywhere she goes, and constantly reading them to the detriment of all other social interactions, may be a repetitive behavior that goes undetected. Examining three year olds with an older sibling with ASD reveals males are overrepresented in clusters of three year olds with symptoms [ 9 , 14 ]. Over a period of at least 6 months, recurrent and intense sexual arousal from touching or rubbing against a nonconsenting person, as manifested by fantasies, urges, or behaviors. Under this theory, a higher rate of ASD risk factors should be observed in the average affected female compared to their affected male counterparts; these additional risk factors are required for the female to surpass the higher clinical or diagnostic threshold imparted by the FPE. As suggested previously for review see [ 30 ] , males may show more of the behaviors that trigger a clinical evaluation, such as hyperactivity and aggression. For ASD diagnosis, no such increase in sibling recurrence rate is observed in the presence of an affected female [ 9 , 22 , 23 ]. Usually, such nonconsensual sexual contact is viewed as a criminal offense: Finally, there is evidence from studies following younger siblings of individuals with ASD that show that diagnostic biases may lead to an overestimation of sex bias, especially in the high functioning group [ 10 , 12 ]. Conviction may result in a sentence or psychiatric treatment. What are the unique challenges to females with ASD as they transition into adulthood? This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Conclusions Accurate and early diagnosis of autism in both sexes is essential, not only for understanding sex differences in ASD, but also for providing appropriate resources and services. Although past research has also documented gender differences in age at diagnosis [ 36 - 39 ]. Main text Is there a true sex difference in ASD prevalence? For example, this was recently shown to be the case in the frequency of genetic mutation [ 35 ]. Furthermore, inherited small CNVs are transmitted more frequently from unaffected mothers than unaffected fathers [ 21 ]. In fact, recently, a retrospective parent interview revealed qualitative differences in social behaviors and interests in both preschool males and females with autism. Discussion at the meeting is summarized here with recommendations on directions of future research endeavors.
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